# Image Details Abstract
700004 syH4

Vat. sir. 268
Classical Syriac
858 CE

Vat. sir. 268 is a “key witness to the four Gospels according to the Harklean version. Its value has been a matter of debate among scholars […who] do not agree on the date of the manuscripts although the colophon on page 172b provides the year 858. A. Juckel provides convincing arguments to date the manuscript between the eight and the ninth century. […] This manuscript is of vellum and comprises 172 leaves measuring 290x215mm. There is a single column on each page with up to 30 lines of text. The text is written in regular Estrangela script […and] contains approximately 85% of the Gospels, while the Gospel of Mark is 100% complete”. Samir Soreshow Yohanna, The Gospel of Mark in the Syriac Harklean Version. An Edition Based upon the Earliest Witnesses, Gregorian & Biblical Press, Rome, 2015, p. 39-41. Mk 16 is present with the long ending and the shorter ending in a marginal note.
700005 syH5

Syc 703
Classical Syriac
1177 CE

From the Chester Beattly Library online catalogue: “Harklean Gospels written in Syriac on parchment in Estrangela script by the scribe Isho’bar Romanos, completed in 1177 at the Church of the Holy Mother (Deipara Maria) situated near Tella d’Arsinos (modern Turkey). It was commissioned by the scribe’s uncle, Rabban Ahron, a priest and monk in Tella. The Gospel book includes the Eusebian letter, canon tables, liturgical lessons, kephalaia (chapters), titles, colophons, and notes from the scribe. The manuscript has several dedications, autographs and dates, including a note that a man named Basil brought the parchment from Tur ‘Abdin and prepared it for use. A previous seal of ownership is found on the last folio with several notes written in Arabic” (https://viewer.cbl.ie/viewer/image/Syc_703/229/). Mk 16 is present with the long ending and the shorter ending in a marginal note.
700006 syH6

Chaldean 25
Classical Syriac
9th-10th or 10th-11th c. CE

The Chaldean 25 (syH6) is hosted in the depository of the Chaldean Antonian Order of St. Hormizd O.A.O.C. (Alqosh, Irak). Dated in recent scholarly debates of the 9th-10th century CE by Samer Soreshow Yohanna (2015), but of the 10th-11th century CE by Andreas Juckel (2019), it represents the Harklean version with a very “careful writing and full of Greek words in the margins” (Scher, 1906). It has been used as basis for the 2015 edition of the Syriac Harklean Gospel of Mark by Yohanna, who describes it as “written on parchment, it measures 215 X 155 mm. It contains 229 leaves (458 pages) with 23-24 lines per page. […] A peculiarity of manuscript C is that the letter Nun almost always has a long tail” (p. 27-28). It present the shorter ending in the marginal note of f. 98v. At the start of its second line, one reads ܐܘܕܥ̣ܢܢ “we made known” (a scribal error for Yohanna or a manuscript default for Taylor); it is editorially recommended to read the word as ܐܘܕܥ̣ܝܢ, “they [f. pl.] made known”. The marginal note also contains a quotation from Severus of Antiochus, who mentions that in some manuscripts the text ends in 16:8. However, syH6 presents the long ending until v. 13, and the last folio has been lost. Claire Clivaz, SNSF MARK16 project, SIB Lausanne (CH); © CC-BY 4.0
700007 syH7

s.n. (DFM 00829)
Classical Syriac
13th century CE

The manuscript abbreviated syH7 (s.n., HMML project DFM 00829) is a witness of the Syriac Harklean translation of the Gospels: it contains Matthew (fol. 4r-47v), Mark (f. 48r-88v) and Luke (f. 88v-117v). Mark 16 can be found on folios 87v to 88v with the longer ending. As signaled by Mina Monier (MF Norwegian School of Theology), the shorter ending is present in a marginal note on folio 87r. The information we currently have about this manuscript’s dating and provenance comes from the Hill Museum and Manuscript Library reading room as cataloged by James E. Walters: it is tentatively dated to the 13th century and is part of the Dominican Friars of Mosul repository, with a modern administrative stamp on f.3v. It was digitized in Erbil in 2017 with the collaboration of the Centre Numérique des Manuscrits Orientaux (CNMO), a center for digitizing manuscripts founded in 1990 by Father Najeeb Michaeel to preserve Irak’s rich cultural heritage. Father Najeeb is now the Chaldean Archbishop of Mosul and, in his book Sauver les livres et les hommes (Grasset, 2017), he tells the story of how he saved hundreds of manuscripts from Daesh jihadists by moving them from Mosul to Qaraqosh first, and again to Erbil where he kept his digitization efforts going. It is possible that syH7 was one of the manuscripts that Father Najeeb conveyed within the trunk of his car, reaching Erbil under the extremists’ bullets, or that it was one of the many manuscripts from churches or private families that he digitized. It does not seem to have been recorded by Benham (2005) in his Catalogue des Manuscrits du Couvent des Dominicains Mossoul (in Arabic) and is not mentioned either in Yohanna’s edition of Mark’s Gospel in the Syriac Harklean version (2014). Elisa Nury, SNSF MARK16 project and David Taylor, SIB Lausanne (CH); © CC-BY 4.0.
702001 syS

Syr. 30
Classical Syriac
4th-5th century CE

A large proportion of the undertexts of Sinai Syriac 30 contains the remains of a 4th/5th century manuscript of the Old Syriac Gospels, generally known as SyrS, or Codex Sinaiticus syriacus, alongside the Greek Codex Sinaiticus. The original manuscript must have had 166 folios, but of these only 142 survive. The Old Syriac translation of the Gospels probably dates from c. AD 200, and two other, likewise fragmentary, manuscripts of this version are known, the Codex Curetonianus (SyrC; British Library Add. 14,451; 5th century) and the undertext of another Sinai manuscript that has recently come to light, Sinai New Finds, Syriac 37 and 39 (6th century). Unlike SyrS , SyrC once had the longer ending of Mark, but only Mark 16:17-20 survives. Along with the Old Latin (Vetus Latina) the text of the Old Syriac is of very great importance for the study of the early textual history of the Greek New Testament. The standard edition is still that by A.S. Lewis, The Old Syriac Gospels (London, 1910), and this is reproduced in G.A. Kiraz, Comparative Edition of the Syriac Gospels, I-IV (Leiden, 2002); a new edition by D.G.K. Taylor is in preparation. The variants of SyrS are given in F.C. Burkitt’s edition of the Curetonianus, Evangelion da-Mepharreshe (2 vols; Cambridge, 1904).There is a Key-Word in Context Concordance of the Old Syriac Gospels by J.A. Lund (3 volumes, 2004), for which see the review by D.G.K. Taylor in Hugoye 9 (2006), 212-23. Sebastian Brock, SNSF MARK16 project; © CC-BY 4.0
703001 syC

Add. MS 14451
Classical Syriac
5th century CE

Codex Curetonianus (BL Add. 14451) is a 5th century manuscript, one of three surviving manuscript witnesses to the Old Syriac version of the Gospels, and it was named for its first editor (1848), William Cureton. There is no surviving colophon, and so it is dated by palaeography. It was acquired by the British Museum (now Library) in 1843 from Deir al-Surian, the Monastery of the Syrians (a Coptic monastery, formerly Syrian Orthodox), in the Wadi Natrun in Egypt. When it was rebound in 1222 CE the manuscript had fallen into disrepair, with only 80 folios of Old Syriac text still preserved as a unit. The gaps were filled by 61 folios taken from damaged Peshitta Gospel manuscripts, and 5 new folios were copied for it from the Peshitta. In London these additions were all removed and preserved separately. Cureton added 2.5 additional Old Syriac folios from the original manuscript reused in bindings of other manuscripts, and later 3 further folios were found in Berlin (Berlin Syr. 8) and 1 folio in Deir al-Surian (Deir al-Surian Syr. frag. 9). In total, 86.5 folios survive out of an original 180. The Gospels were copied in the order Mt, Mk, Jn, Lk, which appears to be unique among extant Gospel manuscripts, although attested in other sources. The Curetonian text differs in many places from the other two Old Syriac manuscripts, and contains many textual plusses, including the surviving fragment of the ending of Mark (16.17b-20), which is all that survives of Mark in this manuscript. The standard edition is by F.C. Burkitt, Evangelion da Mepharreshe: The Curetonian Version of the Four Gospels (Cambridge, 1904). David Taylor, SNSF MARK16 project; © CC-BY 4.0
710001 syP1

Add. 14456
Classical Syriac
8th century CE

The manuscript syP1 (London, British Library Add. 14456, Wright codex LXXX, Pusey and Gwilliam 35) is a 8th-century parchment codex (156 folios) of the four Gospels, and its text belongs to the Peshitta translation. (The manuscript may originally have included the Apostolos, since the reverse of the final folio once contained the start of Romans in a contemporary hand, but the text was later erased.) It is one of the manuscripts bought in the 19th century from the Dayr al-Surian, in the Wadi Natrun in Egypt, and it was probably rebound during its time there since its quires are numbered with Coptic arithmetical figures. The text is supplied with Ammonian section numbers in the margins and Eusebian canon tables at the foot of each column, but these follow the Greek system adopted by the Harklean translation, rather than the revised Peshitta system of sections and canons. (In the text itself, points are included which indicate the sections of the revised Peshitta system, but the numbering is not included). The margins include numerous textual notes, discussing variant readings, taken over from a Harklean manuscript, including the conclusio brevior in the margin of f. 72r. The margins also include kephalaia numbers and titles, again taken over from the Harklean, and an index of these was prefixed to the volume, although only 2 folios now survive. A later hand has also added in the margins the 8th-century (?) Syriac division of the biblical text into ṣḥāhē, (abbreviated as ṣ), which in the Gospels are indicated by a number specific to the individual Gospel, and a second number that is accumulative throughout the four Gospels. A later hand (described by Wright as ‘Nestorian’) has also added numerous vowel signs, revised the text at various points, and noted abbreviated comments on accents and orthography in the margins. The text of this manuscript was only collated in one short passage (Mt 20.17-21.32) in the standard edition of the Peshitta Gospels: Pusey, P.E., and Gwilliam, G.H., Tetraeuangelium Sanctum juxta simplicem Syrorum versionem ad fidem codicum, Massorae, editionum denuo recognitum (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1901). David G. K. Taylor, SNSF MARK16 project; © CC-BY 4.0
720001 CSR Pc

Syr. n°16
Christian Palestinian Aramaic
5th-8th century CE

In 1855, Tischendorf brought 109 folios from the Sinai monastery to the library of St-Petersburg, catalogued as “St-Petersburg Syr. n°16,” and all belonging to the Codex Sinaiticus Rescriptus (CRSP). They have been overwritten in Georgian script by John Zosimus in 964-965 CE at “la Laure de S. Saba” (Judean desert), according to Brosset (1859, p. 264, 266 and 280). The Georgian folios are underwritten in Christian Palestinian Aramaic (CPA) writing, dated between the 5th and the 8th century CE. In its earliest form, CPA shares characteristics with Jewish Palestinian Aramaic and Samaritan Aramaic (Morgenstern, 2012, p. 628). CRSPC f. 103/40r-40v is the most ancient CPA witness for Mk 16:1-8a. The f.40v ends after kwlm, “and to anyone,” and cannot be counted as a witness of an end in 16:8, the next folio being missing. All the later CPA lectionaries have the longer ending (ECM of Mark, vol. I.2, p. 106). The three marginal notes show liturgical indications or canons numbering (Brock, 1999, p. 765-766). The transcription has been edited in 1998 by Christa Müller-Kessler and Michael Sokoloff (Groningen: Styx; copyright granted by Brill). The transliteration and translation have been prepared by Mark Geller (UCLA, London). © Claire Clivaz, MARK16, SNSF, CC-BY 4.0
900002 arb 2

Vat. Ar. 13
9th-12th century CE

Vaticanus Arabicus 13 is written on parchment and contains Mt 1:1-28:11, Mk 5:19-16:8, Lk 3,31-7:11 and the fourteen Pauline letters. Vat. Ar. 13 is not a uniform manuscript. The codex is made of folios copied by different scribes from the 9th to the 12th century. The verses Mk 16:1-8 are written on folio 74v by one of the earlier hand. This last folio of the Gospel of Mark ends with Mk 16:8. Are the verses containging the rest of Mk 16 lost or has the Gospel of Mark in Vat. Ar. 13 the short ending? The question is difficult to answer, because the beginning of Luke is also missing. Further study of the Markan tradition in Arabic Gospels would be helpful for this case. © SNSF Project MARK16 Sara Schulthess CC BY 4.0
900003 arb 3

Cod. 2 (Codex Pandeli)
1723 CE

“According to the colophon at the end of the Gospel of John, this copy was completed by Ibrāhīm ibn Būluṣ ibn Dāwūd al-Ḥalabī in Cairo. It is written in a clear nasḫī script; the illustrations, provided by the Aleppo illustrator and icon-painter Ğirğis bin Ḥanāniyā, portray the four Evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, as well as 43 scenes from the life of Jesus. The Arabic title, «This book is the holy, pure Gospel and the illuminating, shining light», is given at the end of the Gospel of John. This codex is currently on long-term loan from the Pandeli family to the library of St. Gall Abbey”. Henning Sievert, Universität Zürich, 2009. (English translation by Anne Marie Austenfeld), © CC-BY, https://www.e-codices.unifr.ch/en/description/utp/0002/. Completed around the year 1723, Codex Pandeli presents the Gospel of Mark divided into 72 chapters. The long ending appears as a separate chapter (chapter 72); Mina Monier, SNSF MARK16, CC-BY 4.0